DTMF Based Human less Boat Control For Oceanic Research Applications

July 1st, 2011 by admin | No Comments | Filed in ELECTRONICS PROJECTS

Abstract

This project is a prototype boat that can travel in water. The direction of the robot can be controlled by DTMF. This can be moved forward, backward direction. Also this robot can take sharp turnings towards left and right directions using DC Motors. This project uses AT89S52 MCU as its controller.

This project uses DTMF technology for controlling Robot in a way such that near the controlling side we are provided with any type of communication device such as a mobile phone or a landline. Now coming to the other side we are provided with the mobile phone only because a landline cannot move accordingly with the movement of the boat. In the mobile phone we allot the number keys as our direction movements for the Robot to move.

Now when we dial the numbers in the mobile phone from the controlling side then it automatically recognizes which number has been recorded and it follows with the corresponding next step to be taken i.e., movement of the robot in water. This Project uses DTMF Decoder which is controlled by a battery and in turn is connected to the mobile phone. This is controlled by the controller and is again connected to the driver circuit for driving the motor.

This project uses  battery. This project is much useful for mines detection and Oceanic Research Applications.

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DIRECTIONAL COUNTER

June 30th, 2011 by admin | 1 Comment | Filed in ELECTRONICS PROJECTS

Abstract

Counters with directional detection are useful for counting of objects moving along a predefined path. These may find application as visitor counters and also for counting of objects in a given direction and ignoring those moving in the reverse direction. Here we present a simple circuit that counts the number of persons or the objects entering the premises ignoring those exiting or leaving it.

The counter section consists of three IR LEDs, three photodiode detectors. The movement of objects including the direction of their movement is detected by the arrangement of the IR LED and photodiode detector pairs. The photodiode of each pair is mounted opposite to its corresponding IR LED fall directly on the photodiode detector.

Photodiodes D1 and D2 in conjunction with comparators N1and N2 from two sequential interruption detectors. The two outputs of the comparators are normally low (at ground level). When any person or object interrupts the light path of the first IR LED-photodiode pair, the output of comparator N1 goes high during the interruption period to set D-type flip-flop IC2-A, making its Q output (pin13) high. The high output of IC2-Ais fed to data input pin 5 of the second D-type flip-flop (IC2-B) inside CD4013.

Now when the same person/object interrupts the second pair of IR LED2-photodiode D2 during its forward movement, the output of comparator N2 goes high for the duration of interruption. Output pin 7 of comparator N2 is connected to the clock input (pin3) of flip-flop IC2-B.so when comparator N2 outputs a pulse on detecting an object, it clocks the D-type flip-flop, transferring the high state f its data pin5 to Output (pin1), which is otherwise at low level.

This, in turn, makes the reset input (pin4) of IC NE555 (IC3) high to make it active.  Now when the person/object moves further in forward direction, it interrupts the third interruption-detector pair formed by IR LED3 photodiode D3.

The arrangement of photodiode D3 and its 1-mega-ohm series resistor (R6) is reversed compared to the previous two photodiodes connections. Thus, when photodiode D3 is interrupted, the non-inverting input (pin 10) of comparator N3 goes low to make its output pin8 low and trigger the Monostable multivibrator built around IC3 (NE555) to output a positive-going pulse.The output pulse of IC3 is used to trigger decimal counter/display driver IC 4033 (IC4).

Another IC 4033 (IC5) is cascaded with IC 4 to get the maximum count of ‘99’. The count (pin 5) of IC4 is used to trigger IC5. Thus up to 99 persons/objects moving is forward direction so as to sequentially interrupt the three IR LED-photodiode pairs will cause the dual 7-segment display to show the corresponding count on the display.

Block diagram

Advantages:

 

  1. Highly sensitive
  2. Low cost and reliable circuit
  3. Directional counting
  4. Can count up to 99 digits
  5. Error free counting with Monostable triggering

Applications:

  1. Battle filling industries
  2. Museums
  3. Visitors counting
  4. Cinema theaters
  5. Shopping malls

 

 

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DC Motor Speed & Direction Control using ARM(ARM7TDMI) processor based microcontroller(LPC2148)

June 30th, 2011 by admin | 2 Comments | Filed in ELECTRICAL PROJECTS, ELECTRONICS PROJECTS

Abstract

This project is designed to control the speed and direction of a DC motor using ARM based microcontroller. H-Bridge technique is used to control the direction and PWM technique is used for speed control.

The LPC2148 are based on a 16/32 bit ARM7TDMI-S™ CPU with real-time emulation and embedded trace support, together with 128/512 kilobytes (kB) of embedded high speed flash memory. A 128-bit wide memory interface and a unique accelerator architecture enable 32-bit code execution at maximum clock rate.

For critical code size applications, the alternative 16-bit Thumb Mode reduces code by more than 30% with minimal performance penalty. With their compact 64 pin package, low power consumption, various 32-bit timers, 4- channel 10-bit ADC, USB PORT,PWM channels and 46 GPIO lines with up to 9 external interrupt pins these microcontrollers are particularly suitable for industrial control, medical systems, access control and point-of-sale. With a wide range of serial communications interfaces, they are also very well suited for communication gateways, protocol converters and embedded soft modems as well as many other general-purpose applications.

This project uses two power supplies, one is regulated 5V for modules and other one is 3.3V for microcontroller. 7805 three terminal voltage regulator is used for voltage regulation. Bridge type full wave rectifier is used to rectify the ac out put of secondary of 230/12V step down transformer.

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Controlling Electrical Appliances through TV Remote

June 30th, 2011 by admin | 3 Comments | Filed in ELECTRICAL PROJECTS, ELECTRONICS PROJECTS

Abstract

This is an interesting project built with an IR sensor and a decade counter. By using this project, one can control his lights / fans / AC / any electrical appliance with a TV Remote. CD4017 is a CMOS Decade counter. It can detect a clock pulse and the BCD out put will be incremented by one for each CLK pulse. If we observe the BCD numbers, the LSB (Least Significant Bit) of BCD complemented every time. This project uses this LSB to switch ON / OFF an electrical appliance.

TSOP1738 is a high sensitive IR receiver which can sense 38 KHz IR light. The electrolytic capacitor (100μF) connected across pin no’s 3 and 1 of TSOP1738 for medium sensitivity. The NPN transistor BC557 is connected as a switch. Whenever an IR signal is detected, the transition is sensed by the PNP transistor and it supplies a CLK pulse to the BCD counter (CD4017). For every clock pulse the LSB (Least Significant Bit) of the BCD output is complemented. This toggling output is given to an NPN transistor through a base resistor.  If logic ‘0’ is applied to the transistor, it will be driven into cut-off region. As the collector current is zero in cut-off region, the relay will not be energized and the electrical appliance will be in OFF mode.

If logic ‘1’ is applied to the transistor, it will be driven into saturation region. As the collector current is high in saturation region, the relay will be energized and the electrical appliance will be in ON mode. A diode is connected across the relay to protect the transistor by neutralizing the reverse EMF generated by the electromagnetic relay. An LED connected at pin no.2 of CD4017 to indicate the ON condition of the LOAD. An LED connected at pin no.3 of CD4017 to indicate the OFF condition of the LOAD.

This circuit works with regulated 5V supply. This circuit is sensitive to any remote control like TV remote, VCD remote, DVD remote etc.

Block diagram

 

Advantages:

 

  1. Highly sensitive
  2. Works with any TV / DVD remote
  3. Low cost and reliable circuit
  4. Coverage distance up to 10m
  5. Can handle heavy loads up to 7A
  6. System can be switched into manual mode whenever required

Applications:

  1. Home appliance control
  2. Hotel lights / fans control
  3. Shops and showrooms
  4. Industrial Applications
  5. Electronic Toys

Abstract

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